Spondylitis causes and symptoms
Spondylitis is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. It is a condition marked by joint stiffness and ache that begins in the neck and extends to the lower back. It can also cause spinal deformities, resulting in a hunched posture. Spondylitis is a painful ailment that stops people from going about their daily lives normally. Spondylitis impacts a wide range of people, regardless of their age or gender. A person may experience weariness, fever, poor appetite, and redness of the eyes in addition to discomfort, stiffness, bony growths on the spine, and pain in ligaments and tendons.
Spondylitis types, causes, and symptoms
- Ankylosing Spondylitis
The most frequent type is ankylosing spondylitis. The spine, lower back, and hip joints are commonly affected.
- Ankylosing spondylitis symptoms involve:
- an ache in the lower back
- Pain in the hip joint
Spondylitis causes and symptoms – The specific cause of this is unknown to doctors. Yet, human leukocyte antigen B27 is carried by 9 out of 10 patients with AS (HLA-B27). This indicates that the gene may predispose a person to Ankylosing Spondylitis, but it does not guarantee that a person who carries the gene will get the disease. According to researchers, 8 out of every 100 persons carry the HLA-B27 gene, although the majority do not get AS.
2. Enteropathic Arthritis
The discomfort and swelling in the intestines distinguish this type of spondylitis. You could be suffering from back and joint ache.
Other signs and symptoms usually involve:
- stomach ache
- weight loss
- bleeding in bowel movements
Causes – Researchers aren’t sure what causes EnA, but they think it has something to do with gut inflammation. Bacteria may be able to infiltrate the damaged gut wall and travel through the bloodstream as a result of chronic abdominal swelling. The body’s response to these bacteria could result in even more pain and stiffness. The gene “HLA-B27” is also linked to Enteropathic arthritis.
3. Reactive Arthritis
Spondylitis with ReA is a kind of spondylitis that develops following a bacterial infection. It could be caused by a sexually transmitted disease (std) like chlamydia or a gastrointestinal ailment caused by Salmonella-contaminated food.
ReA can cause discomfort and swelling in the knees and ankles, as well as the spine and sacroiliac joints.
You might have the following symptoms:
- Pain and swelling in the joints
- a rash on the skin
- inflammation in the eyes
- pain and inflammation in the bladder and vaginal area\
Cause – A gut infection or certain sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are the most common causes of reactive arthritis. ReA can also occur after a case of glandular fever or erythema infectiosum. ReA is a condition in which the immune system reacts to infection and attacks healthy cells. Inflammation results from this. The HLA-B27 gene has also been linked to reactive arthritis in studies. According to scientists, 30–50% of persons with ReA contain the gene. According to some hospital research, this number could be as high as 60–80 percent.
4. Psoriatic arthritis
Backache and stiffness are common symptoms of this kind of spondylitis. Psoriasis of the skin is linked to it. Psoriatic arthritis primarily affects smaller joints, such as the fingers and toes, causing discomfort and inflammation.
The signs and symptoms are:
- skin rash
- discomfort and swelling in the hands, fingers, and feet
- dactylitis (swelling of the toe or finger between joints, also known as “sausage fingers”)
Causes – Due to injuries, an individual may acquire PsA in a joint. It’s also possible that the condition has a genetic component. According to scientists, at least 10 percent of the population carries one or more genes that predispose to psoriasis.
5. Juvenile spondylitis
It is an arthritic condition that affects children and teens. The joints in the legs are commonly affected by this type of arthritis. It’s possible that one leg is more impacted than the other.
Juvenile Spondylitis Causes and Symptoms include
- Pain and swelling around the joints and in the spine
- It impacts the parts of the body where muscles, ligaments, and tendons connect to bone.
Cause – The exact cause of Juvenile spondylitis is unknown to experts. Yet, just like adults with spondylitis, kids with the disease are frequently carriers of the HLA-B27 gene.
6. Undifferentiated spondylitis
If you have undifferentiated spondylitis, you are unlikely to experience back discomfort, a rash, or digestive issues. Instead, you could:
- Back discomfort that is severe
- Buttock ache
- Enthesitis (heel ache)
- Eye inflammation
To determine if you really have spondylitis, your clinician will do a physical examination and interview you about your medical records. To confirm the diagnosis, you may require more tests and scans, like:
- A blood test to look for symptoms of infection and inflammation
- An X-ray of your hip and pelvis is recommended.
- Genetic testing
- MRI examination of your back, hips, and pelvis
- Keep a symptom record and keep track of when your symptoms flare-up. This may aid in the diagnosis of your spondylitis by your doctor.
If you are diagnosed with spondylitis, your doctor may suggest –
- NSAIDs (nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medicines) such as aspirin, ibuprofen, or naproxen
- Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs)
- alpha-tumor necrosis (TNF-alpha) blockers
- Injections of steroid
- Ocular drops with steroids
- Gym and aquatic activities
- A back or hip operation
Spondylitis is a degenerative disorder that causes the intervertebral disc and spine to weaken, resulting in the production of bony spurs. It could be genetic to some extent, but not entirely. If you have any of the above-mentioned symptoms then please consult your orthopedic doctor. To know more about spondylitis causes and symptoms, consult Dr. Vasudeva. Also, read – When To See a Doctor for Back Pain